Successful aging is a term used to define the success or health of an individual as they age. It specifically refers to success in aging within the area of physical health, psychological health and social health. Physical health refers to whether one has a chronic condition such as heart disease, high blood pressure or diabetes and whether one has functional impairments such that they require assistance in basic activities (eg. a cane or a walker). Psychological health refers to depression, cognitive function (mental sharpness) and emotional vitality (happy and interested in life). Finally, social health refers to items such as engagement with life, social support and spirituality.
Research has shown that people who are physically active are more likely to age successfully. But the influence of sedentary behaviour i.e. the amount of time one spends in sitting activities, on successful aging is not known. In a recent paper entitled “Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity are Independent Predictors of Successful Aging in Middle-Aged and Older Adults” published in the Journal of Aging Research (link), a colleague and I set out to understand the influence of sedentary behaviour in this relationship. Using a large sample of middle-aged and older adults from Canada we determined that sedentary behaviour influenced the chances of aging successfully (overall, physically, psychologically and socially) regardless of how physically active one was. Specifically, compared to sedentary older adults, moderately sedentary and least sedentary older adults were 38% and 43% more likely to be aging successfully overall, respectively. In other words, despite being physically active, someone who spends a great deal of time sedentary (for example, sitting at a desk or on a couch) is less likely age successfully in all three domains!
I must acknowledge, as with any research, this paper comes with some limitations. But, it is the first in what will hopefully be a growing field of research to indicate that being active isn’t enough, we must cut down on the amount of time we spend in sedentary activities in order improve our health or to maintain good health. Some people may say that this is impossible, that it is difficult enough to find 30 minutes to exercise. But there are simple strategies one can use to decrease sedentary time or to break up sedentary time. For great information and tips on this, please visit: http://www.sedentarybehaviour.org/ or http://blogs.plos.org/obesitypanacea/
TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Regardless of your age, you should make an effort to decrease the amount of time you spend in sedentary activities. This may be of particular importance to middle-aged and older adults, as these ages are considered “high risk” for the development of chronic diseases such as heart disease or cancer and are generally associated with higher rates of depression and loneliness. To ensure that you or your parents and loved ones age successfully, be sure to incorporate as much activity into your day, whether it be walking or gardening or cooking/cleaning or simply standing at your desk or sitting on a stability ball to watch TV. Anything you can do to break up sedentary time will help, so get moving and keep up with your HALF!